REDHAT 5 – DHCP

Posted: September 7, 2010 in REDHAT 5 LinUX

DHCP

Introduction

Normally if you have a cable modem or DSL, you get your home PC’s IP address dynamically assigned from your service provider. If you install a home cable/DSL router between your modem and home network, your PC will most likely get its IP address at boot time from the home router instead. You can choose to disable the DHCP server feature on your home router and set up a Linux box as the DHCP server.

This chapter covers only the configuration of a DHCP server that provides IP addresses. The configuration of a Linux DHCP client that gets its IP address from a DHCP server is covered in linux Networking.

Download and Install the DHCP Package

Most RedHat and Fedora Linux software products are available in the RPM format. Downloading and installing RPMs aren’t hard. If you need a refresher.

When searching for the file, remember that the DHCP server RPM’s filename usually starts with the word dhcp followed by a version number like this: dhcp-3.0.1rc14-1.i386.rpm.

Debian Note: With Debian / Ubuntu the package name may include a version number. Use the rpm -qa | grep dhcp command to get a list of all your dhcp packages and use the output to infer what the DHCP server package name would be. In this case we can guess that the package name should be dhcp3-server.

root@u-bigboy:/tmp#rpm -qa | grep dhcp

ii  dhcp3-client   3.0.3-6ubuntu7  DHCP Client

ii  dhcp3-common   3.0.3-6ubuntu7  Files used by all the dhcp3* packages

root@u-bigboy:/tmp#

The /etc/dhcpd.conf File

When DHCP starts, it reads the file /etc/dhcpd.conf. It uses the commands here to configure your network. The standard DHCP RPM package doesn’t automatically install a /etc/dhcpd.conf file, but you can find a sample copy of dhcpd.conf in the following directory which you can always use as a guide.

/usr/share/doc/dhcp-<version-number>/dhcpd.conf.sample

You have to copy the sample dhcpd.conf file to the /etc directory and then you’ll have to edit it. Here is the command to do the copying for the version 3.0p11 RPM file:

[root@bigboy tmp]# cp /usr/share/doc/dhcp-3.0pl1/dhcpd.conf.sample /etc/dhcpd.conf

Debian Note: With Debian / Ubuntu the configuration file name is /etc/dhcp*/dhcpd.conf and has the same syntax as that used by Redhat / Fedora.

Here is a quick explanation of the dhcpd.conf file: Most importantly, there must be a subnet section for each interface on your Linux box.

ddns-update-style interim

ignore client-updates

subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

# The range of IP addresses the server

# will issue to DHCP enabled PC clients

# booting up on the network

range 192.168.1.201 192.168.1.220;

# Set the amount of time in seconds that

# a client may keep the IP address

default-lease-time 86400;

max-lease-time 86400;

# Set the default gateway to be used by

# the PC clients

option routers 192.168.1.1;

# Don’t forward DHCP requests from this

# NIC interface to any other NIC

# interfaces

option ip-forwarding off;

# Set the broadcast address and subnet mask

# to be used by the DHCP clients

option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255;

option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;

# Set the NTP server to be used by the

# DHCP clients

option ntp-servers 192.168.1.100;

# Set the DNS server to be used by the

# DHCP clients

option domain-name-servers 192.168.1.100;

# If you specify a WINS server for your Windows clients,

# you need to include the following option in the dhcpd.conf file:

option netbios-name-servers 192.168.1.100;

# You can also assign specific IP addresses based on the clients’

# ethernet MAC address as follows (Host’s name is “laser-printer”:

host laser-printer {

hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:59:23;

fixed-address 192.168.1.222;

}

}

#

# List an unused interface here

#

subnet 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

}

There are many more options statements you can use to configure DHCP. These include telling the DHCP clients where to go for services such as finger and IRC. Check the dhcp-options man page after you do your install:

[root@bigboy tmp]# man dhcp-options

Note: The host statement seen in the sample dhcpd.conf file can be very useful. Some devices such as network printers default to getting their IP addresses using DHCP, but users need to access them by a fixed IP address to print their documents. This statement can be used to always provide specific IP address to DHCP queries from a predefined a NIC MAC address. This can help to reduce systems administration overhead.

How to Get DHCP Started

To get DHCP started:

1) Some older Fedora/RedHat versions of the DHCP server will fail unless there is an existing dhcpd.leases file. Use the command touch /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.leases to create the file if it does not exist.

[root@bigboy tmp]# touch /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.leases

2) Use the chkconfig command to get DHCP configured to start at boot:

[root@bigboy tmp]# chkconfig dhcpd on

With Debian / Ubuntu the equivalent command for the dhcp3-server package would be:

root@u-bigboy:/tmp# sysv-rc-conf dhcp3-server on

3) Use the service command to instruct the /etc/init.d/dhcpd script to start/stop/restart DHCP after booting

[root@bigboy tmp]# service dhcpd start

[root@bigboy tmp]# service dhcpd stop

[root@bigboy tmp]# service dhcpd restart

With Debian / Ubuntu the equivalent commands would be:

root@u-bigboy:/tmp# /etc/init.d/dhcp*-server start

root@u-bigboy:/tmp# /etc/init.d/dhcp*-server stop

root@u-bigboy:/tmp# /etc/init.d/dhcp*-server restart

4) Remember to restart the DHCP process every time you make a change to the conf file for the changes to take effect on the running process. You also can test whether the DHCP process is running with the following command; you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers:

[root@bigboy tmp]# pgrep dhcpd

5) Finally, always remember to set your PC to get its IP address via DHCP.

Conclusion

In most home-based networks, a DHCP server isn’t necessary because the DSL router / firewall usually has DHCP capabilities, but it is an interesting project to try. Just remember to make sure that the range of IP addresses issued by all DHCP servers on a network doesn’t overlap because it could possibly cause unexpected errors. You might want to disable the router/firewall’s DHCP server capabilities to experiment with your new Linux server.

A DHCP server may be invaluable in an office environment where the time and cost of getting a network engineer to get the work done may make it simpler for Linux systems administrators to do it by themselves.

Creating a Linux DHCP server is straightforward and touches all the major themes in the previous chapters. Now it’s time to try something harder, but before we do, we’ll do a quick refresher on how to create the Linux users who’ll be using many of the applications outlined in the rest of the book.

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